The 35 year-old, a silver medallist at the 2004 Games in Athens, decided to quit after he and mixed doubles partner, Jenny Wallwork, were edged out in the battle for a place in Britain’s squad by Chris Adcock and Imogen Bankier.
“I have no regrets,” Robertson told Telegraph Sport. “I wish I was at London 2012, there’s no doubt about that, but I am extremely satisfied with my career and can’t be any happier about going into retirement now.
“People say whether I regret partnership decisions [he split up with men’s doubles partner Anthony Clark to focus on London 2012], but there was always thought that went into these things.
“You forget the bad patches quickly as sports people. Right now, I am just thinking about the great moments I had and the people I shared it with.”
Robertson’s omission means that British badminton will field a quartet of Olympic debutants next month, which also includes singles players’ Rajiv Ouseph and Susan Egelstaff.
But he had no qualms in admitting that Adcock and Bankier had simply been the best mixed doubles pair over the last 12 months.
“For neutral fans, it has been entertaining to see how the rivalry played out,” he said. “We had expectations going into qualifying but we didn’t just miss out in the end, we missed out by a long way.
“They fully deserved their place and I have already offered my support to the players and coaches in the build-up to the Games.”
Adrian Christy, Badminton England’s chief executive, said: “It is a sad day for the sport as he is arguably our greatest ever player, a one-off, super-talented individual.
“He is an infectious character and a brilliant role model. Our pool of talented players now need to aspire to his heights.”
Keeping in line with Christy’s view that former players should be rewarded for their services, Robertson is now likely to take up an ambassadorial role within the sport.
Robertson competed at the Sydney Olympics in 2000 before winning silver with long-time partner Gail Emms at the Athens Games in 2004.
Two years later, the pair won Commonwealth gold in Melbourne and then the world title in Madrid. He forged a partnership with Wallwork following Emms’ retirement at the last Olympics in Beijing.